Testosterone has a characteristic tetracyclic C18 steroid structure, which is synthesized mainly by testicular interstitial cells. Testicular interstitial cells maintain circulating testosterone levels and thus produce characteristic androgenic effects on distant androgen-sensitive target tissues. Testosterone in the body goes to four roles:
DHTS are more potent androgens that produce locally amplified enhancement in specific tissues, such as the prostate and hair follicles, and are the basis for the development of adolescent male characteristics. More than 95% of the testosterone that enters the prostate is converted into the more potent androgen DHT, which has 3-10 times the binding affinity of testosterone in androgen receptors. DHT is necessary for early testicular development while maintaining normal erectile function in mature men.
So, testosterone is transformed by 5AR to develop and maintain important masculine characteristics.
Although very little testosterone is converted to estradiol, estradiol has a higher molar effect (about 100 times that of testosterone). Thus, a small amount of estradiol is needed to maintain a man's estrogen needs. In men with normal gonadal development, about 80% of the estradiol derived from testosterone outside the testis is aromatized. Testosterone in neural tissue is converted to estradiol and plays an important role in mediating testosterone action, including the triggering of negative feedback mechanisms. Estradiol is also related to male bone maturity, lack of estradiol is difficult to maintain normal male bone mass.
Thus, the expression of testosterone after aromatization maintains mature masculinity and bone health.
3. A portion of the remaining testosterone binds directly to androgen receptors in skeletal muscle, while another portion is inactivated by liver stage I and II metabolism to become inactive oxidizing and binding metabolites. Some of this testosterone is metabolized, while others help muscle growth and maintain muscle mass.
Testosterone plays an important role in the human body, mediating the normal operation of the human body. Synthetic anabolic steroids (AAS) were originally intended to replace the effects of testosterone. For bodybuilder, the body has a stable testosterone level, and supplementation with exogenous AAS can lead to high levels of DHT or estrogen, with the associated side effects. bodybuilder sometimes needs to block the effects of DHT or estrogen, but it is not advisable to reduce their levels indefinitely, just return them to normal levels.
The male sex hormone testosterone has three distinct roles in the body, but they work together to maintain a man's health and function.